For other uses, see, Vacant wall in the Louvre's Salon Carré after the painting was stolen in 1911. [129], In 1974, the painting was exhibited in Tokyo and Moscow. [105], On the 500th anniversary of the master's death, the Louvre held the largest ever single exhibit of Da Vinci works, from 24 October 2019 to 24 February 2020. Né en 1452 en Italie, Léonard De Vinci était un peintre, sculpteur, inventeur ou encore écrivain, mort en 1519. "[38] Some art historians in Eastern art, such as Yukio Yashiro, argue that the landscape in the background of the picture was influenced by Chinese paintings,[39] but this thesis has been contested for lack of clear evidence. [130], In 2014, 9.3 million people visited the Louvre. [41][42], Of Leonardo da Vinci's works, the Mona Lisa is the only portrait whose authenticity has never been seriously questioned,[43] and one of four works – the others being Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, Adoration of the Magi and The Last Supper – whose attribution has avoided controversy. In 1883, Le rire, an image of a Mona Lisa smoking a pipe, by Sapeck (Eugène Bataille), was shown at the "Incoherents" show in Paris. [25] Art historian Carmen C. Bambach has concluded that Leonardo probably continued refining the work until 1516 or 1517. [18][71][72] At some point in the 16th century, a varnish was applied to the painting. La Joconde. [116] According to Rhonda R. Shearer, the apparent reproduction is in fact a copy partly modelled on Duchamp's own face.[117]. Propriété de la commune, legs, Rennes, musée des Beaux-Arts. [18][20] In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. Denizard was directed to clean the picture without solvent, and to lightly touch up several scratches to the painting with watercolour. SENS DE L’ŒUVRE : « Giocondo » signifie en italien : heureux et serein … La Joconde pourrait incarner l’idée de bonheur. Il est 7 heure du matin, nous sommes le lundi 21 août 1911. This explains the great precision of the listings. [40], Research in 2008 by a geomorphology professor at Urbino University and an artist-photographer revealed likenesses of Mona Lisa's landscapes to some views in the Montefeltro region in the Italian provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and Rimini. [47] According to Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, [he] left it unfinished". One is moved, troubled ... repressed desires, hopes that drive one to despair, stir painfully." Her gaze is fixed on the observer. [84] The painting was protected by glass because a few years earlier a man who claimed to be in love with the painting had cut it with a razor blade and tried to steal it. The listing details are highly structured, using a special vocabulary, which allows for very specific and accurate searches, helped as well by the index. [141] It is a painting of the same subject as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. "[63] It has never been fully restored,[97] so the current condition is partly due to a variety of conservation treatments the painting has undergone. Le groupe Joconde a été fondé en 1980 par Madame Boukhris Zeineb la doyenne de l’enseignement privé en Tunisie avec une longue expérience éducative de plus que 35 ans. Secteur de collection After the second 1956 attack, restorer Jean-Gabriel Goulinat was directed to touch up the damage to Mona Lisa's left elbow with watercolour. Son plus célèbre tableau, le portrait de Mona Lisa, a été réalisé en superposant plusieurs couches de peinture, reproduisant le modelé et le rendu de la peau avec un réalisme incroyable. Mais il ne l’a certainement jamais eu en sa possession. Dimensions 61,5 x 49,5 cm Impression : 48 x 33 cm. En quelques minutes il s'empare du tableau, le dissimule sous sa blouse d'employé et rentre chez lui, dans le Xe arrondissemen… Ce tableau, réalisé au début du XVIe siècle, est le portrait d'une jeune Florentine. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled Mona (as used by Vasari), is also commonly spelle… For example, Leonardo probably painted his model faithfully since her beauty is not seen as being among the best, "even when measured by late quattrocento (15th century) or even twenty-first century standards. [102] Since 2005 the painting has been illuminated by an LED lamp, and in 2013 a new 20 watt LED lamp was installed, specially designed for this painting. [54] Later paintings by Raphael, such as La velata (1515–16) and Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (c. 1514–15), continued to borrow from Leonardo's painting. [31], Mona Lisa has no clearly visible eyebrows or eyelashes. [36] Cotte discovered the painting had been reworked several times, with changes made to the size of the Mona Lisa's face and the direction of her gaze. Winding paths and a distant bridge give only the slightest indications of human presence. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance,[4][5] it has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world". Cet oeuvre d'art est sous la responsabilité de Cécile Scailliérez ( conservateur )jusqu'en 2006, novembre 2006 au collectionneur et conservateur Vincent Delieuvin qui s'occupe des peintures italiennes du XVIème siècle. [33] The enigmatic woman is portrayed seated in what appears to be an open loggia with dark pillar bases on either side. ", "In Louvre, New Room With View of 'Mona Lisa, "A Record Picasso and the Hype Price of Status Objects", "Another art anniversary: Mona Lisa comes to New York! It comes under the "Direction des Musées de France" (DMF) section of the Ministry. [87][88] In both cases, the painting was undamaged. After some confusion as to whether the painting was being photographed somewhere, the Louvre was closed for a week for investigation. Originally just for objects from the fine arts and decorative arts, in 2004 Joconde was united with what had been separate databases for objects from archeology and ethnology. Aujourd'hui, 2008 la Joconde se trouve dans une salle rénovée au Louvre ou elle fait face au tableau de Véronèse " Les noces de Cana ". A later restorer glued and lined the resulting socket and crack with cloth. "Possibly it was another portrait of which no record and no copies exist—Giuliano de' Medici surely had nothing to do with the. In the mid-18th century to early 19th century, two butterfly-shaped walnut braces were inserted into the back of the panel to a depth of about one third the thickness of the panel. The current scholarly consensus on attribution is unclear. "[110], By the early 20th century, some critics started to feel the painting had become a repository for subjective exegeses and theories. Experts universally agree that it is based on Leonardo's portrait. [142] Some experts, including Frank Zöllner, Martin Kemp and Luke Syson denied the attribution;[143][144] professors such as Salvatore Lorusso, Andrea Natali,[145] and John F Asmus supported it;[146] others like Alessandro Vezzosi and Carlo Pedretti were uncertain. [103] The renovation of the gallery where the painting now resides was financed by the Japanese broadcaster Nippon Television. ", "Hidden portrait 'found under Mona Lisa', says French scientist", "Secret Portrait Hidden Under Mona Lisa, Claims French Scientist", "New Study Reveals Potentially Groundbreaking Drawing Hidden Beneath 'Mona Lisa, "Why Leonardo da Vinci's brilliance endures, 500 years after his death", "Biographical index of collectors of pastels", "Mona Lisa fans decry brief encounter with their idol in Paris", "Leonardo da Vinci's Unexamined Life as a Painter", "Louvre exhibit has most da Vinci paintings ever assembled", "Philadelphia Museum of Art - Collections Object : Tea Time (Woman with a Teaspoon)", "Mona Lisa: Who is Hidden Behind the Woman with the Mustache? [13] In 1516, Leonardo was invited by King Francis I to work at the Clos Lucé near the Château d'Amboise; it is believed that he took the Mona Lisa with him and continued to work on it after he moved to France. Forger Yves Chaudron was to have created six copies of the painting to sell in the US while concealing the location of the original. La Joconde revisitée par l'artiste MADSAKI, proche de Takashi Murakami: Une œuvre iconique modernisée. "[111][112] Jean Metzinger's Le goûter (Tea Time) was exhibited at the 1911 Salon d'Automne and was sarcastically described as "la Joconde à la cuiller" (Mona Lisa with a spoon) by art critic Louis Vauxcelles on the front page of Gil Blas. In 1906, Louvre restorer Eugène Denizard performed watercolour retouches on areas of the paint layer disturbed by the crack in the panel. Technique Mine graphite sur héliogravure. analyse du tableau de Léonard de Vinci . "[125], From December 1962 to March 1963, the French government lent it to the United States to be displayed in New York City and Washington, D.C.[126][127] It was shipped on the new ocean liner SS France. Despite the treatments, the Mona Lisa has been well cared for throughout its history, and although the panel's warping caused the curators "some worry",[98] the 2004–05 conservation team was optimistic about the future of the work. [89] A new queuing system introduced in 2019 reduces the amount of time museum visitors have to wait in line to see the painting. Léonard de Vinci, Entre 1503 et 1506 Huile sur panneau de bois de peuplier 77 × 53 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris La Joconde (ou Portrait de Mona Lisa) est un tableau de Léonard de Vinci, réalisé entre 1503 et 1506 d'une femme qui s'appelait à l'époque Mona Lisa del Giocondo.Huile sur The unconstrained poplar panel warped freely with changes in humidity, and as a result, a crack developed near the top of the panel, extending down to the hairline of the figure. analyse d'un tableau : la Joconde . Because of the painting's overwhelming stature, Dadaists and Surrealists often produce modifications and caricatures. [147], Copy of Mona Lisa commonly attributed to Salaì, 16th-century copy at the Hermitage by unknown artist, This article is about the painting. That Leonardo painted such a work, and its date, were confirmed in 2005 when a scholar at Heidelberg University discovered a marginal note in a 1477 printing of a volume by ancient Roman philosopher Cicero. [67][c] According to Vasari, the painting was created for the model's husband, Francesco del Giocondo. And she's almost drowned in a sprinkler malfunction", "The Louvre, the most visited museum in the world (01.15)", "Culture – Could France sell the Mona Lisa to pay off its debts? Leonardo, later in his life, is said to have regretted "never having completed a single work". [73] In 1797, it went on permanent display at the Louvre. [3] It was kept at the Palace of Fontainebleau until Louis XIV moved it to the Palace of Versailles, where it remained until the French Revolution. [91][92][93] Cotte admits that his investigation was only carried out only in support of his hypotheses and should not be considered as definitive proof. The lamp has a Colour Rendering Index up to 98, and minimizes infrared and ultraviolet radiation which could otherwise degrade the painting. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), the painting was moved from the Louvre to the Brest Arsenal. [119] The French urban artist known pseudonymously as Invader has created versions of the Mona Lisa on city walls in Paris and Tokyo using a mosaic style. "[30] Woods-Marsden cites Hans Memling's portrait of Benedetto Portinari (1487) or Italian imitations such as Sebastiano Mainardi's pendant portraits for the use of a loggia, which has the effect of mediating between the sitter and the distant landscape, a feature missing from Leonardo's earlier portrait of Ginevra de' Benci. "[63] Nevertheless, applications of varnish made to the painting had darkened even by the end of the 16th century, and an aggressive 1809 cleaning and revarnishing removed some of the uppermost portion of the paint layer, resulting in a washed-out appearance to the face of the figure. 1981, p 192 It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506; however, Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517. It became the definitive example of the Renaissance portrait and perhaps for this reason is seen not just as the likeness of a real person, but also as the embodiment of an ideal. He also found that in one layer the subject was depicted wearing numerous hairpins and a headdress adorned with pearls which was later scrubbed out and overpainted. It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic itself, on permanent display at the Louvre, Paris since 1797.[10]. Sometime between 1888 and 1905, or perhaps during the picture's theft, the upper brace fell out. Le 12 décembre 1913 le tableau La Joconde de Léonard de Vinci, subtilisé au musée du Louvre deux ans auparavant, refait surface à Florence en … Vasari's account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in 1550, 31 years after the artist's death. [34][35] In 2007, French engineer Pascal Cotte announced that his ultra-high resolution scans of the painting provide evidence that Mona Lisa was originally painted with eyelashes and with visible eyebrows, but that these had gradually disappeared over time, perhaps as a result of overcleaning. When an object created after the 19th century has no image this is most often for copyright reasons. Peruggia may have been motivated by an associate whose copies of the original would significantly rise in value after the painting's theft. Le modèle qui a servi est inconnu, peut-être une Florentine, une femme de marchand, Lisa del Giocondo, née Lisa Gherardini, surnommée Mona Lisa. Joconde is the central database created in 1975 and now available online, maintained by the French Ministry of Culture, for objects in the collections of the main French public and private museums listed as Musées de France, according to article L. 441-1 of the Code du patrimoine [3] amouting to more than 1,200 institutions.[4]. Pourquoi La Joconde a-t-elle une renommée mondiale aussi exceptionnelle, exprimant la peinture en général et l'idéal féminin en particulier ? ", "The 'Prado Mona Lisa' – The Mona Lisa Foundation", "Da Vinci's Mona Lisa Entering the Next Dimension", Tweened animated gif of Mona Lisa and Prado version, "Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images? The model, Lisa del Giocondo,[16][17] was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany, and the wife of wealthy Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo. L’histoire mentionne qu’un portrait féminin était avec l’artiste et scientifique italien lors de son séjour au château du Clos Lucé (également appelé manoir du Cloux) à côté d’Amboise (château de la Loire). Salvador Dalí, famous for his surrealist work, painted Self portrait as Mona Lisa in 1954. Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardo's contemporary Agostino Vespucci. C’est la lumière qui définit les volumes, les contours sont estompés, la peinture est recouverte de glacis colorés qui vitrifient le tableau. Some argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisa referred to by Vasari. Walter Pater's famous essay of 1869 described the sitter as "older than the rocks among which she sits; like the vampire, she has been dead many times, and learned the secrets of the grave; and has been a diver in the deep seas, and keeps their fallen day about her. [14], In response to the announcement of the discovery of this document, Vincent Delieuvin, the Louvre representative, stated "Leonardo da Vinci was painting, in 1503, the portrait of a Florentine lady by the name of Lisa del Giocondo. [18] The painting is thought to have been commissioned for their new home, and to celebrate the birth of their second son, Andrea. [citation needed]. À propos de la notice. In recent decades, the painting has been temporarily moved to accommodate renovations to the Louvre on three occasions: between 1992 and 1995, from 2001 to 2005, and again in 2019. [48] Leonardo's right hand was paralytic circa 1517,[49] which may indicate why he left the Mona Lisa unfinished. Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. [99][100], The picture is kept under strict, climate-controlled conditions in its bulletproof glass case. Some researchers claim that it was common at this time for genteel women to pluck these hairs, as they were considered unsightly. During World War II, it was again removed from the Louvre and taken first to the Château d'Amboise, then to the Loc-Dieu Abbey and Château de Chambord, then finally to the Ingres Museum in Montauban. [20], Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed that Leonardo's painting should have been returned to an Italian museum. Denizard also retouched the edges of the picture with varnish, to mask areas that had been covered initially by an older frame. [111] Upon the painting's theft in 1911, Renaissance historian Bernard Berenson admitted that it had "simply become an incubus, and [he] was glad to be rid of her. Acquisition Dépôt de Siège national du Parti communiste français. [79] A year after the theft, Saturday Evening Post journalist Karl Decker met an alleged accomplice named Eduardo de Valfierno, who claimed to have masterminded the theft. This became madonna, and its contraction mona. Duchamp added an inscription, which when read out loud in French sounds like "Elle a chaud au cul" meaning: "she has a hot ass", implying the woman in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and intended as a Freudian joke. Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma'am, Madam, or my lady in English., Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 05:14. The database is not only dedicated to the information of the public but as well to the needs of the administrators and curators of the museums, thanks to the online presentation of professional tools to facilitate notably the museums collections cataloguing and state inventory (récolement). Raphael, who had been to Leonardo's workshop several times, promptly used elements of the portrait's composition and format in several of his works, such as Young Woman with Unicorn (c. 1506),[108] and Portrait of Maddalena Doni (c. Après un siècle de relative tranquillité, la Joconde est volée le 21 août 1911. Le tableau est vraisemblablement acheté par François Ierlui-même, qu… Live on the French Minitel system from 1992, the database went online to the World Wide Web in 1995. Date acquisition. [55][56][57] Other later copies of the Mona Lisa, such as those in the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design and The Walters Art Museum, also display large flanking columns. The title of the painting, which is known in English as Mona Lisa, comes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, who wrote "Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife. L'histoire du vol de La Joconde est en fait un coup de foudre entre un certain Vincenzo Peruggia et la mystérieuse Mona Lisa. [122] The Baedeker guide in 1878 called it "the most celebrated work of Leonardo in the Louvre",[123] but the painting was known more by the intelligentsia than the general public. [75], In 1911, the painting was still not popular among the lay-public. [28] Zöllner notes that the sitter's general position can be traced back to Flemish models and that "in particular the vertical slices of columns at both sides of the panel had precedents in Flemish portraiture. Zollner states that "None of Leonardo's works would exert more influence upon the evolution of the genre than the Mona Lisa. [39], Research in 2003 by Professor Margaret Livingstone of Harvard University said that Mona Lisa's smile disappears when observed with direct vision, known as foveal. Date de création 1930. La Joconde fit dès lors partie des collections royales pour être exposée au château de Versailles pendant le règne de Louis XIV. [63], The first and most extensive recorded cleaning, revarnishing, and touch-up of the Mona Lisa was an 1809 wash and revarnishing undertaken by Jean-Marie Hooghstoel, who was responsible for restoration of paintings for the galleries of the Musée Napoléon. [46] Other academics argue that, given the historical documentation, Leonardo would have painted the work from 1513. [25][26][27] The consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo. Le peintre italien y travaille pendant quatre ans, de 1503 à 1506, et utilise le peuplier comme support. [81] Decker published this account of the theft in 1932.[83]. [137][138][139] However, a more recent report has demonstrated that this stereoscopic pair in fact gives no reliable stereoscopic depth. Pour donner un effet vaporeux à sa toile, le peintre a utilisé une technique nommée sfumato, consistant à appliquer plusieurs couches … In 1985, the spot was again treated with carbon tetrachloride as a preventive measure. Le 16 octobre, la Joconde devrait regagner ses pénates, juste avant l’ouverture, le 24, de la grande exposition consacrée à Léonard, qui promet encore une affluence record. bibliographie. [92][71] The underlying portrait appears to be of a model looking to the side, and lacks flanking columns,[94] but does not fit with historical descriptions of the painting. "[109], Early commentators such as Vasari and André Félibien praised the picture for its realism, but by the Victorian era, writers began to regard the Mona Lisa as imbued with a sense of mystery and romance. This became madonna, and its contraction mona. In 2004–05, a conservation and study team replaced the maple crosspieces with sycamore ones, and an additional metal crosspiece was added for scientific measurement of the panel's warp. [57][56][69][70] Others believe that there was only one true Mona Lisa, but are divided as to the two aforementioned fates. [76] On 21 August 1911, the painting was stolen from the Louvre. Qui est donc Mona Lisa ? [50][51][52][a], Circa 1505,[54] Raphael executed a pen-and-ink sketch, in which the columns flanking the subject are more apparent. heydenrich 6 ; ottino della chiesa 31 ; villot i 484 ; hautecoeur 1601 ; c.s.i. Because of the way the human eye processes visual information, it is less suited to pick up shadows directly; however, peripheral vision can pick up shadows well. Statut juridique. Zollner gives a date of c. 1504, most others say c. 1506, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, "The Mona Lisa's Twin Painting Discovered", "The Theft That Made Mona Lisa a Masterpiece", "Mona Lisa – Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberger find clarifies identity", "Highest insurance valuation for a painting", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberg discovery confirms identity", "German experts crack the ID of 'Mona Lisa, "Riddle of Mona Lisa is finally solved: she was the mother of five", "Mona Lisa backdrop depicts Italian town of Bobbio, claims art historian", "Leonardo's Portrait of Mona Lisa del Giocondo", "Solved: Why Mona Lisa doesn't have eyebrows", "Lurking Beneath the 'Mona Lisa' May Be the Real One", "BBC NEWS – Entertainment – Mona Lisa smile secrets revealed", "Researchers identify landscape behind the Mona Lisa", "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished, "A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa", "Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say", "Mona Lisa: A comparative evaluation of the different versions and copies", "Leonardo da Vinci's portrait of Mona Lisa de Giocondo", "The Theft That Made The 'Mona Lisa' A Masterpiece", "The French Burglar Who Pulled Off His Generation's Biggest Art Heist", "Top 25 Crimes of the Century: Stealing the Mona Lisa, 1911", "Review: The Lost Mona Lisa: The Extraordinary True Story of the Greatest Art Theft in History by RA Scotti", "100 Years Ago: The Mastermind Behind the Mona Lisa Heist | The Saturday Evening Post", "Russian tourist hurls mug at Mona Lisa in Louvre", "Will new Mona Lisa queuing system in restored Louvre gallery bring a smile back to visitors' faces?